2. prednaska fonetika fonologia anj (Fonetika fonologia 2. prednaska 21. 10 2010.doc)
Phonetics studies human speech from psysiological acoustic and partly from psychological aspects. It can be dividen into thre principal sub branches:
- Articulatory phonetics is concerned with the position and movements of lips tongue vocal tract and folds(hlasivky pouziva sa aj vocal folds) and other speech organs in producing speech
- Acoustic phonetics is concerned with the properties of the sound waves and how they are received by the inner ear
- Auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception (vnimanie vnemy) principally how the brain forms perceptual representations of the output it recieves
Phonology(phonemics, functional/linguistic/ systemic phonetics) is a subfield of linguistics which studies language as a system of abstract elements – phonemes
The main task of phonology is to find relevant distinctive(rozlisovacia funkcia) features of sounds, which enable us to distinguish one word from another for example: tin, sin thin, shin, fin..., my-by.
Whitin phonology, two branches of study are usually recognised:
- Segmental phonology, which analyzes speech into the minimal functional elements of phonology- phonemes,
- Suprasegmental phonology which analyzes functional segments higher than phonemes syllables, stress, intonation, tone-units, utterances ()
Phoneme -> The smallest unit of phonology is the phoneme . It can be defined as a minimal distinctive sound unit or a class of phonetically similar sounds that signals difference in meaning. It is the smallest combinatory phonological unit which has a constitutive and distinctive function it constitutes higher units – morphemes, words in the abstract system of language, and distinguishes the meaning of words. It is also the smallest contrastive linguistic unit which may bring about the change of meaning.
Allophones -> Are concrete manifestation of phonemes in the sphere of speech. They are those sounds which have no distinctive or contrastive function, they are only positional variants of phonemes or their subsidiary members.
Example: [p]- can be pronounced as a viceless bilabial plosive(sport, apple) or a plosive with aspiration [p´]- Peter, park.
There are also many variations of [i]. The quality of the sound is very much affected by the position of the main part of the tongue behind the tip, for exampôe: clear i(is used when a vowel or j follow): live lucky value dark i (is used finally and before consonants): feel, doll, field, build.
Though all these are different speech sounds they are identified as one phoneme, and the individual speech sounds are only positional variants od the same phoneme.
Diaphones -> have some features in common with allophones-i.e. they have no contrastive function and do not change the meanin of words- they are two consistently different acoustic realization of the same phoneme by different speakers or different groups of speakers. A certain sound used used by one speaker or a group of speakers is consistently replaced by another sound in the pronunciation of another speaker or a group of speakers of the same language, for example: often, vitamins, finance, dance.
Allophones and diaphones belong to the concrete sphere of speech and are studied by phonetics, phonemes belong abstract order of language an are studied by phonology. Every language has an unlimited number od speech sounds (allophones), but only a limited number of phonemes. En has twenty vowel phonemes and twenty four consonant phonemes. The inventory of phonemes in any lang. is limited.
Nevertheless by this limited number of phonemes we can express an unlimited number of utterances. What may be a phoneme in one lang. can be a positional variant in another lang. and vice versa. Fort example [n] and nasal n  in en are two phonemes in slovak nasal n [ ] is only a positional variant of [n] before k, g. The inventory of phonemes can be arranged according to relevant features into minimal pairs based on a set of relationships or oppositions.
The most important relations existing among phonemes are called correlation(vztah suvis medzi niecim) or oppositions. The individual pairs of phonemes can form, for example:
- The correlation of sonority: p-b, t-d, k-g
- The correlatiom pf tension(napatost): lenis- fortis
- The correlation of length: short- long
- The correlation of nasality: oral-nasal
- The correlation of palatalization in Slavonic languages (t-ť; d-ď; n-ň; l-ľ).