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Essentials of Essentials of English Linguistics (Essentials of Essentials of English Linguistics.doc)

Essentials of Essentials of English Linguistics


Warning of the Ministry of Sanity and Mental Health of Students


    Dear reader, please note that the following lines may contain information harmful to your good mood and may cause Štekauerism (a rare disease which causes the reader to forget everything from extra – linguistic reality and talk only in linguistic terms exclusively).

    The purpose of this text, however, is to make sure that this disease comes right at the time of final exams and will therefore have a positive effect.


- Do not read after 22:00 – doing so will remove any sexual will.

- Do not allow children below 80 years to see this – they may die of boredom

 or heart attack, or sudden eruption of verbal diarrhoea.

- Contain in a cool, dry place, such as a grave, tomb or mausoleum.

- If you ever come across the abbreviation „WTF?“, it stands for „WHAT


- The examples used in the exemplification of the terms discussed have

 NOTHING to do with real life. Any resemblance is purely coincidental.



Marcel Pavlík, A.L. (Anti – Linguist), author, December 2007



















1) Chomsky's definition of language.

   According to Chomsky, language is a set of sentences, i.e. sequences of words. It's not the naming that makes the language, it's the syntax. He distinguishes two basic terms - competence (the language system, langue) and performance (the use of this system, parole). This is a quotation of Chomsky:


By a language then, we shall mean a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each of finite length, all constructed from a finite alphabet of symbols. If A is an alphabet, we shall say that anything formed by concatenating ths symbols of A is a string in A. By a grammar of the langnage L we mean a device of some sort that produces all of the strings that are sentences of L and only these.


2) Explain the basic characteristics of human language.

   It's a system of interrelated linguistic signs, each of which have their form and meaning. The value of these signs is based on their position in this system and on their relations with other signs. These signs have the following basic features:


- They are arbitrary (not based on logic or systematic criteria, but on convention),

 i.e.signs denoting the same object can have different form in different languages,

 which is conditioned by different historical and social developement of any

 particular language. E.g. table = Tisch (nem.), stôl, tsukue (jap.)


- The relation between sound trace in human mind (signifiant) and the object

 denoted by this sound (signifie) is obligatory for every single language user.

 E.g. When I say table, it means table for me, for you, for Stekauer or for everyone else.


- They have linear character (they follow one another "in line"). Because utterances

 (sentences which are spoken) are realized in time, two or more linguistic

 signs cannot occur at the same moment. Instead, they have to be ordered, one after

 another, and the relations between these subsequent signs are called syntagmatic



- They are characterised by discontinuity (or discreteness). The linguistic sign is

 created by connecting a specific, precisely delimitated sequence of sounds (our

 sign) with a part of the continual extra - linguistic reality (or undifferentiated

 nebula, the real world). Various languages may segment this continual reality

 into different pieces, according to the decision of the language - users (that's why

 there's term discreteness).


3) Explain the basic notions of language, langue vs. parole.

   According to De Saussere, we may segment the language into three different parts:


- Langue - this is an abstract system of rules valid for some particular language,

 which is same and obligatory for every single language user.




- Langage - this term represents the innate ability of human beings to create a

 language as a system of signs, which are not inherited. This is what makes human

 language different from e.g. animal sign systems.  


- Parole - this term is used for the particular concrete manifestation of langue by the

 individual language users.


4) Explain the two basic functions of the language.

   These two bacic functions are as follows:


- Communicative function - we use language to present and communicate our

 thoughts, ideas or opinions to other human beings.


- Cognitive function - we use the words of language for reasoning, considering and

 fantasizing, as well as to discover the world around us. We "think" using words.


5) Explain the diachronic and synchronic methods.

   These two methods are used in language analysis.


- Diachronic method - studies the development of a certain language feature over a

 period of time, marks its historical evolution.


- Synchronic method - studies this language feature at a particular concrete point in  

 time, disregarding any historical pre - development.  


6) Explain the notion of competence and performance.

    See question 1.


7) Explain "freedom from stimulus" control.

   Human language may respond to one concrete stimulus in a wide variety of ways - unlike animal "language", in which one stimulus always creates one expected response (Rex k nohe! always means that Rex pribehne). This feature of human language forms the basis for the ability of displacement - the unique ability of human language users to speak not only about things which are "near" and "now", but also about those, which are distant in time and space - thus allowing the language users to speak about anything.    


8) Explain the structural priority of the spoken language over written language.

   The only limitation valid for the written form of language is the alphabet (or any other system of script), but apart from that, you may combine almost any sequence of letters into almost any combination without serious difficulties. But problems arise when you attempt to pronunce it, because speaking is restricted not only by the versatility of the language you speak, but also by your vocal organs, which may not always be able to reproduce any combination of letters. This means that the structure  of spoken language is more restricted and organised than the written one, and that's why the former has the structural priority over the latter.

9) Explain the biological priority of spoken language over written language.

   Ever since they are babies, human beings show innate predisposition to acquire the ability to speak. They easily recognise the speech sounds from any other sounds in their enviroment, and quickly learn to use them properly - they smoothly develop the spoken form of language. Writing, on the other hand, can be compared to any  other skill, which has to be learned with no predisposition - children have to learn and practise writing in schools just like maths or physics, and it takes significantly longer for them to learn to write properly. In this way is the spoken language dominant over the written one, and has the biological priority over it.  


10) Give four priorities of spoken language over written language.

     These four priorities are as follows: Historical, Structural, Biological and Functional.


11) Explain the notion of isomorphy in relation to spoken and written language.

     If there is an isomorphy between a spoken and written form of language, there is an one - to - one correspondence between the internal structure of the written and the spoken sentence. That means that particular letters will stand in correspondence with particular sounds, and particular combination of these letters will mirror the particular combination of sounds.


12) Explain the communication scheme.

     Communication scheme is the model of communication, as drawn below:


Speaker / Sender |->->->->(information)->->->->|Hearer / Receiver

                                  \ Communication channel  /


13) Explain two aspects of productivity of  language.

     The productivity of the language represents a possibility to produce a new complex expression by combining the component units. (E.g. phonemens into morphemes, morphemes into words, etc.) There are two basic levels of productivity:


- Word Formation - the ability of language to produce a new word whenever

 necessary, reflecting the needs of the speech community.


- Sentence Formation (Syntax)- the ability of language to produce an infinite

 amount of sentences whenever the need arises.


    These two aspects grant the language users the ability to speak about anything, real and unreal as well.







14) Explain the principle of duality.

     The language system is basically formed by two levels:


- Level of meaningless elements - consists of phonemes, which have their form, but

 although having the meaning - distinctive ability, they carry no meaning of their



- Level of meaningful units - consists of units, which are combined from

 meaningless elements (phonemes) and therefore have not only their form, but

 also carry their meaning - we may now consider them to be linguistic signs.


15) Explain the difference between the type and token.

     Type is a particular derived word.

     Token is an occurence of this word (type) in language.


16) Explain the difference between human and animal language.

     See questions 3 and 7.


17) Explain the physiological adaptation principle.

     No idea what this is.


18) Explain the difference between syntethic and analytic languages. What type of

     language is English?

     In syntethic languages, relations between individual units are decribed by inflectional morphemes in their secondary grammatical categories - case, number, person, gender etc. Old English or Slovak language are syntethic.

     In analytic languages, inflectional morphemes are to large extent neglected or are not used at all. Therefore, relations between the words have to be decribed in different ways - e.g. fixed word order. Modern English is an analytical language.


19) Explain the basic features of analytic languages.


- Grammatical category of person and number is not expressed by grammatical

  morphemes, but personal pronouns are used instead (the exception being the

  third person singular).


- Since declarative mood is expressed by personal pronouns, imperative mood

 cannot be (when you form imperative, you either use only one word (Go!), or

 auxiliary structure (Let's do it!)).


- Different cases are expressed by prepositional phrases (not in one word, but by

 using preposition + word, e.g. They gave it to me <->Dali to mne.)


- Possesion is expressed by possesive pronouns. (E.g. It is mine.)


- Word order is fixed, since it is used to express grammatical relations.


- Comparison is either synthetic (bigger than) or analytic (more beautiful than).


- Complementary distribution of morphemes is determined analytically by the

 number of syllables.


- Almost complete loss of suppletion (although with many exceptions in case of

 English: bad - worse - worst, good - better - best).


- Infinitive is expressed analytically (not synthetised into one word: to do <-> robiť).


20) Explain the difference in behaviour of English and Slovak affixes (both

     inflectional and derivational)

     In English, affixes (of Class I) may exhibit phonological influence (shortening of stem vowel, changing of the stem vowel, resyllabification, stress shift etc.) over the base. No such thing happens in Slovak.


21) Give evidence of so - called regularization tendencies.

     Every newly coined word is inflected in a regular way, according to the rules.

E.g. mouse (computer mouse) - plural is mouses, not mice.


22) Explain De Saussere's notions signifiant and signifie.

     See question 2.


23) Explain arbitrariness of linguistic signs.

     See question 2.


24) Explain linearity of signs.

     See question 2.


25) Explain discontinuity as a feature of signs.

     See question 2.


26) Explain the term syntagma.

     The term syntagma denotes the basic relation between the head and the modifier. + See question 2.


27) Discontinuity at a phonological level.

     No idea.










28) Explain Ogden and Richard's triangle.

     Their semiotic triangle looks like this:



    Semiotic triangle is a model of linguistic sign, which represents the relation between the word (or symbol) and the object in extralinguistic reality (the thing), which it denotes. However, this dotted line means that there is NO direct connection between the symbol and the thing - instead, it is solved by a mental concept. To put it simply, the word itself - the combination of sounds and letters - has absolutely NOTHING to do with the thing it symbolizes. But when you see (or hear) it, a picture of an object immediately pops up in your head, but it's only a picture (or an idea) of the object, not the object itself (that would be . . . funny, to say the least).


29) Explain Pierce's triad.

     This triad pertains to semiology, the science of signs.

     Basic definition of sign says that it is an object, which stands for something else. Charles Pierce differentiated three following types of signs:


- Icons - these are based on physical, easy - to - spot similarity and resemblance

 between their form and the object they signify.

 E.g. Maps - they (should) resemble the area they are supposed to cover.


- Indexes - these are based on some internal, inherent relationship between their

 form and the object they signify.

 E.g. smoke sign is used to denote fire, since there never is smoke without fire . . . Or is there?



- Symbols - these are based on common agreement of the users, they are a matter of

 tradition, convention.

 E.g. red heart is used to signify love, white ladybird is a sign of peace, etc.


30) Explain freedom from stimulus control.

     See question 7.


31) Explain the difference between connotation and denotation.

     Denotation of the word is what this word indicates - its literal, dictionary meaning. Connotation of this word, on the other hand, is the idea or quality that this word makes you think of - the associated meaning.

E.g. Denotation of home is "place of residence", connotation of home could be "family, love, safety" etc.


32) Draw the Cardinal Vowel Scheme.

      See Essentials or Peter Roach's book.


33) Explain the criteria for the classification of consonants.

     These criteria are as follows:


- Manner of articulation - segments consonants according to the type of stricture

 involved in their production.


- Place of articulation - segments consonants acccording to the position of the

 passive and active articulators, which take part in their production.


- Accustic impression - segments consonants according to the presence or absence of

 voice and the sound impression we get in their production.


- Position of the soft palate - segments consonants according to the areas, where

 they are produced - either oral, or nasal cavity.


34) Characterise plosives and affricates in terms of the place and the manner of


     In order to produce a plosive, the glottis is completely closed and the airstream is not allowed to escape - therefore, it is compressed until it is able to overcome the stricture and this sudden release causes plosion. The soft palate is raised.

     In order to produce an affricate, part of the mouth is completely closed and the airstream is not allowed to escape. The pressure is then released slowly, which causes friction noise. The soft palate is raised.  








35) Give two classes of diphthongs.

     These two classes are the following:


- Centring diphthongs - these are complex sounds which glide towards the central

 vowel - schwa.


- Closing diphthongs - these are complex sounds which glide towards close vowels.


36) Explain the difference between consonants and vowels.

     Consonants are usually non - periodic sounds, which are produced by the means of closure of a certain part of the respiratory tract ,which prevents the airstream from escaping freely from the lungs. They are noises at the place of an obstacle.  The vocal folds may or may not be vibrating.

     Vowels are periodic sounds, which are produced by altering the lip and tongue shape in order to modify the freely - escaping airstream. There is no stricture nor narrowing, that would prevent the airstream from escaping - they are tones of free cavity. The vocal folds are usually vibrating.


37) Explain commutation.

     Commutation, or commutation test, is a process in which we exchange one phoneme of a word for another, thus getting new word with a different meaning.

E.g. pit -> bit, slam -> clam, poor -> door, . . .  


38) Basic parts of the tone unit.

     Basic parts of the tone unit are pre-head, head and tail.


39) Four basic functions of intonation.

     Intonation helps the hearer to interpret utterances correctly, and has four basic functions:


- Function on a sentence layer - thanks to this function, the hearer is able to

 interpret the utterance as a statement, command, answer, question, or exlamation.


- Modal function - this function serves as a mediator between the content of the

 sentence and reality. It expresses possibility, probability, significance or validity

 of the sentence.


- Attitudal function - it's purpose is to serve as a mediator between the content of

 the sentence and the personal attitude of the speaker towards it. It is used to

 express politeness, indifference, emphasis, etc.  


- Informatory function - this function of intonation helps us to better mediate the

 dichotomy between known and unknown.




40) What is influenced by amplitude and what by frequency of sound waves?

     Amplitude influences the loudeness of the sound.

     Frequency influences the height of the pitch of the sound.


41) Three factors influencing stress in English words.

     These three factors influencing the stress are as follows:


- Morphological complexity - whether the world is morphologically simple (one -

 syllable word, moneme) or complex.


- Primary grammatical category of the word - whether the word is a noun, adjective,

 verb, adverb, etc.


- Total amount of syllables in the word, and their phonological structure - usually,

 this factor deals with the type of vowels found in syllable's nucleus, and how many

 syllables there are in the word.


42) Explain assimilation and identify its three types. Give at least one example.

     Assimilation is a modified pronunciation of an element (phoneme) due to the elements surrounding it in a word or phrase. This element may be influenced by the elements which come after it (regressive assimilation), or by those which preceede it (progressive assimilation).  We distinguish three following types of assimilation:


- Assimilation of manner - this is a matter of rapid speech, when we try to facilitate

 our speech by assimilating some phonemes, which are difficult to produce (like

 final plosives) into something much easier (like fricatives or nasals). It is

 usally the regressive type of assimilation which occurs here. E.g. Good Night



- Assimilation of place - this is noticable in regressive assimilation of alveolar

 consonants, many of which may be modified, for example, into their bilabial

 counterparts, if they are followed by a bilabial (stronger) plosive - e.g. sane people

 [seim pi:pl].


- Assimilation of voice - this type of assimilation frequently occurs in its

 proggressive form mostly with the endings [s] and [z] in the 3rd person singular

 verbs or in plural forms of nouns - the voiced one [z] is pronunced when preceeded

 by a voiced consonant, and voiceless [s] is pronunced when preceeded by a

 voiceless consonant. E.g. dogs [dogz].


43) What is the difference between regressive and porgressive type of assimilation?

     Give at least one example of assimilation and identify its type.

     See question 42.





44) Explain assibilation, give examples of historical and contextual assibilation.

     Assibilation is a sound change resulting in an sibilant consonant (a sibilant consonant is an affricate or a fricative). Historical assibilation can be seen in the pronunciation of the word "duke" in English spoken in Ireland - [džúk] - this is a result of a pronunciation used in Elizabethian times.  Contextual assibilation sa mi nepodarilo nájsť :(.


45) Explain affrication, give examples of historical and contextual assibilation.

     Affrication is a process of converting a single stop consonant (often an alveolar one) into an affricate. Historical example: See question 44.


46) What is the function of linking an intrusive r? Explain the difference between

     them and give examples.

     Linking r is a phenomenon that means a realisation of the phoneme [r] in the onset of the word beginning with a vowel if the previous word's coda was ending in [r]. Phoneme [r] is not realised, if the following word begins with a consonant.

E.g. Here they are. -> No [r] in "here". /// Here I am. -> [r] is pronunced in "here".

     Intrusive r is a phenomenon that means an insertion of the phoneme [r] in the onset of the word beginning with a vowel, if the previous word's coda was ending in a vowel - regardless to the fact whether there was or wasn't a phoneme [r] in the previous word's coda. This is done to prevent a separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels. E.g. Asia and Africa ->Asia[r] and Africa. /// withdrawal -> withdraw[r]al.


47) Explain and exemplify juncture and elision.

     A juncture is a distinction between the transition of syllables of a pair of words, which has a form of a pause at the boundary of two neighbouring morphemes. This allows the hearer to correctly distinguish between the members of this pair of words. Longer transitions are called open transitions, whereas short transitions are called close transitions. E.g. mistake vs. miss take, nitrate vs. night rate.

      Elision is a disappearance of some sounds due to certain circumstances. It is a matter of rapid, informal speech. E.g. waste of time - [weist shwa taim] instead of [weist ov taim]


48) Explain the difference between hiatus and diphthong.

     Hiatus is a separate pronunciation of two neighbouring vowels, which may be even reinforced by a glottal stop.

      On the other hand, diphthong is a rapid glide from the first vowel to a second one - they are not pronunced separately, but rapidly, one after another, until they "merge" into a single vowel sound.


49) What is syneresis? Give an example.

     Syneresis is the drawing together of the two consecutive vowels or syllables into one syllable, as in the formation of a diphthong. E.g. ever -> e'er.




50) Explain the functional view of phoneme.

     The functional view of phoneme regards it as the minimal sound unit by which meaning can be differentiated.


51) Explain the mentalistic view of phoneme.

     The mentalistic view of phoneme regards it as an ideal sound (a trace in mind), at which the speaker aims when he or she attempts to pronunce it.


52) Explain the physical view of phoneme.

     The physical view of phoneme regards it as a family of sounds which shares some phonetic similarities and in which no member of this family may occur in the same phonetic context as another. This forms the basis for complementary distribution of the phonemes.

53) Give at least three basic characteristics of phoneme.

     These three characteristics are as follows:


- A phoneme is an abstract phonic unit, which can't be actually pronunced - when  

 the speakers attempt to do so, they only produce an allophone, but never the

 phoneme itself.


- A phoneme is a family of sounds, which show phonetic similarity to one another.


- A phoneme is the minimal non - interchangeable unit, which is capable of

 distinguishing the meaning of words.


54) What is the difference between phoneme and allophone?

     Phoneme is an abstract sound unit, a sound contained as a trace in our mind, which is the same for every single language user and allows him to distinguish the meaning of words. It is a part of the abstract system of rules, langue.

     Allophone, on the other hand, is a concrete sound unit, a sound spoken or written in an utterance, which may differ from speaker to speaker. It is a part of the concrete manifestation of the system of rules, parole.


55) Reasons for the existence of allophones.

     The different realisations of the phonemes (allophones) may exist because of the following reasons:


- A realisation of a phoneme may vary from one repetition of utterance to another.


- A realisation of a phoneme may vary because of the different positions, in which it

 may occur.


- A realisation of a phoneme may vary because of different speakers who pronunce





56) Explain the difference between combinatory and free allophones.

     Dodnes nechápem, čo to je complementary distribution, a tak sa radšej do tohto nepúšťam. :(


57) Explain complementatry distribution. Give an example.

      See question 56.


58) What is the weak form of a word? Identify words which can have weak form.

     A weak form is a phonemically modified form of a monosyllabic word which can be used in an unstressed position, which we do not wish to emphasize. These words may be either function words, or particles.


59) Explain the notion of semivowels and identify semivowels in English.

     Semivowels are phonemes which are phonetically like vowels, but phonologically function as consonants. There is a glide from a vowel to a consonant (in case of phonemes [j] and [w]), or just an approximation (in case of [r]).


60) Explain unidimensional and multidimensional oppositions.

     In case of unidimensional opposition of two phonemes, the common base shared by both phonemes of this particular pair does not occur in any other pairs. E.g. [t] <-> [d] - the common base is that they are both alveolar plosives (there are no other alveolar plosives in English than [t] and [d]).


61) Explain proportional and isolated oppositions.

     In case of proportional opposition, the given relation occurs in several pairs of phonemes. E.g. relation of voiced vs. voiceless occurs in these pairs: [b] <-> [p],

[d] <-> [t], [g] <-> [k].

      In case of isolated opposition, the given relation occurs only in one specific pair of phonemes. E.g. relations between [r] and [l].


62) Explain privative and gradual opposition.

     In case of privative opposition, the difference between the two phonemes of a pair is based on the presence vs. absence of a specific feature.

     In case of gradual opposition, the difference is based on a different degree or extent of a specific feature.


63) Characterise morpheme and allomorph.

     Morpheme is the smallest part of the word of abstract nature, which has its own form (formeme) and its own meaning (sememe). They are parts of langue, the language system.

      Allomorph is a concrete realisation of the morpheme in complementary distribution, and their form may differ from word to word, while their meaning remains the same. They are parts of parole, the concrete manifestation of the language system.




64) At least three conditions for the existence of allomorphs.

     Allomorphs may exist if:


- They all preserve the same meaning as the original morpheme they represent.


- They are in the relation of complementary distribution, i.e. they only occur in

 mutually excluding contexts, not in the same ones.


- They admit only regular changes in their phonetic form, while maintaining a

 certain degree of invariance.


65) Explain suppletion and diamorph. Give examples.

     Suppletition occurs when we use one word as an inflected form of another word, and these two words do not have the same origin (so - called "irregular forms").

E.g. bad -> worse -> worst.

      Diamorph is a case, when a morpheme is realised in two different allomorphs by more than one speaker and they are widely accepted.

E.g. schedule -> pronunced either [skedjul] or [šedjul].


66) Explain the cranberry morph.

     A so - called cranberry morph is a morph, which actually has no meaning (only its form), but acts as a full - scale morpheme in specific individual cases - it allows the language - users to distinguish the meaning of these individual words.  

E.g. Monday, cranberry, perceive. . .


67) Explain the notions paradigm, conjugation, and declension.

     A paradigm is a set of selected models or patterns of forms found in different grammatical enviroment (case, number, aspect, person, mood, etc.).

     Conjugation is verb - concerning process, in which the finite forms of the

verb (finite forms are those forms, in which the verbs show person, number, tense, mood, etc.) are created from infinite forms by the use of inflection.      

     Declension is a process concerning nouns, pronouns and adjectives, which are made to show their secondary grammatical categories by the use of inflection.  


68) Explain the reason for the adjectivization of the original possessive case of nouns.

     There were three following main reasons for the adjectivization of the possessive case of nouns:


- Loss of functions - the inflectional morpheme of possessive case was

 originally a pattern valid for all Old English nouns - today, it is only used in

 animate names.


- Form of the morpheme - the inflectional morpheme of possesive case may in some

 cases have the  same pronunciation, while having a different meaning (E.g.

 father's book (singular) is pronunced the same as fathers' book (plural)). This rule also

 applies to adjectives, and this contributed to the adjectivization of this morpheme.  

- The behaviour of the morpheme - the inflectional morpheme of possessive case

 behaves just like an adjective does - it may be physically attached to a single

 word, yet it is valid for more than just one word. (E.g. Father and mother's day. -

 possessive case behaves just like The man I've seen yesteday's hat. - adjective.)


69) Explain accidental categories and substances.

     Accidental categories are the abstract categories, by which we may attribute properties to things - we attribute their accidents.

     Substances are the individual physical things determined by their accidents.  


70) Characterize three different types of categories according to John Lyons.

     John Lyons outlined three following types of categories:


- Categories according to the mode of being - distinguishes between substances and



- Categories according to the mode of signifying - segments words according to

 what they refer to - nouns refer to substances, adjectives to qualities, etc.


- Categories according to the meaning - segments words into major parts of speech

 (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, etc.), which have the full proper standalone

 meaning, and into minor parts of speech (conjunctions, prepositions, etc.), which

 don't have such an independent meaning, but only contribute to the total

 meaning of sentences by imposing certain grammatical organisation.


71) Explain three basic criteria for the classification of word - classes.

     These three basic criteria are as follows:


- Ontological criterium - according to this, words are to be segmented into categories

 according to what part of extra - linguistic reality they denote. E.g. nouns denote

 objects, adjectives denote permanent qualities, etc.


- Syntactic criterium - according to this, words are to be segmented into categories

 according to their function in the sentence. E.g. nouns function as subjects and  

 objects, verbs as predicates, etc.


- 3rd criterium som hľadal, hľadááál, ale nenašiel . . . :(


72) Explain why Plato and Aristotle classified adjectives as a subclass of verbs.

     The function of adjectives, in their most typical role, was the one of predication - just like the function of verbs. Nouns served first of all as the subjects of this predication.





73) Explain Mathesius's notion categorial transmission. Give also an example of

     transition of adjectives into verbs.

     Categorial transition is the transition of English nouns, by which they acquire a higher degree of actional character. In other words, prepositional phrases are used not only to denote the agent, but the noun in these phrases also expresses an action, despite the fact that there is no verb. E.g. A boring lecture by Tomaščíková. = A boring lecture given by Tomaščíková. ///A children poem by Marcin. = A children poem recited by Marcin.


74) Assign cases to the following functions: subjective, objective, indirect objective

     and possesive.

     Nominative fulfills the subjective function.

     Accusative fufills the objective function.

     Dative fulfills the indirect objective function.

     Genitive fulfills the possessive function.


75) What is clitic, what is empty morph?

     A clitic is a form which is word - like, but is structurally dependent on the neighbouring  word and may even attach to it. It is usually incapable of bearing stress. E.g. You should NOT do that.  (no clitic)  -> You shouldn't do that. /// I AM doing my homework, mum! (no clitic) -> I'm doing my homework, mum!

     An empty morph is a morph which is supposed to have no meaning at all, and is not a realisation of any known morpheme. Usually functions as a linking element only. E.g -o- in Czechoslovakia, speed-o-meter.


76) What is the difference between referential (natural) gender and formal gender?

     What kind of gender is typical of English?

     Referential gender is dependent on the (natural) characteristics of the referent.  

     Formal gender is a noun - class system which classifies nouns as maskuline, feminine, or neuter. It often is a matter of convention and may have nothing to do with the actual meaning of the word.

     In English, referential gender is undoubtedly dominant.


77) Explain the difference between tense and time, and give Jespersen's classification

     of tenses.

     The main function of tense is to relate the time of action or event mentioned in the sentence to the time of uttering this sentence. Its secondary function is to express the aspectual difference of completition or incompletion, continuation or momentariness.

     However, linguistic tense used in utterances and the actual time of action in the extra - linguistic reality are only loosely interrelated.  A sentence in a certain linguistic tense does not necessarily mean that the real action happened in that specific time which is expressed by tense.

E.g. Stekauer's exam questions are stupid. -> The present tense doesn't mean that they are stupid only at the present moment of speaking, it means that they are generally stupid - they were stupid in the past, they are stupid at present, and probably will remain stupid in the future.    

78) Explain the difference between finite and non - finite verb forms. Which forms are

     non - finite?

     The finite forms of the verb are those forms, in which the verb shows it's secondary grammatical categories - number, tense, person, etc.

     Verb in its non - finite forms doesn't show these categories. There are three non - finite verb forms in English:


- Infinitive - this form is either preceeded by the morpheme to, or it occurs without it (bare infinitive) after certain verbs (e.g. after modals - may, can, must, etc.).


- -ing participle (present participle)  - this form consists of the verb stem and the

 suffix -ing.


- -ed participle (past partciple) - this form consists of the verb stem and the

  suffix -ed.


79) Explain the difference between the progressive and perfective aspects.

     The progressive aspect indicates an action in progress at a given time. The action may have been in progress for a certain duration, limited duration, or is not necessarily finished.

E.g. I am calling for Redford now, and that egoistic kitten isn't coming.  

     The perfective aspect indicates anterior time, i.e. the time which has already preceeded any time orientation given by the tense of the sentence.  

E.g. I have already called for Redford.


80) Explain the Item and Arrangement model.

     The IA model states that certain word forms can show a partial phonetic - semantic resemblence to other word forms. In other words, if we segment a particular word into its morphemes, we may find many other words which use the very same morphemes in their structure. It also studies the sequence, in which these morphemes are ordered in the word's structure, and the allomorphs, which are realised in the word's structure.

E.g. According to IA model, the word farm-er-s bears a partial resemblance to farm-ing, drive-er, chauffer-s with respect to one segment (morpheme).  


81) Explain the Item and Process model.

     The IP model is a description based on morphological processes. It distinguishes between the basic underlying forms of a morpheme and the forms, which are derived from them by certain processes.

E.g. bake and take are the basic morphemes, and when a process called the forming of the past tense is applied to them, two derived morphemes result from it - baked and took.


82) Explain the difference between the IA and IP.

     See question 80 and 81.




83) Explain morphonemics, give an example.

     Morphonemics links the morphological structure of the word to its allomorphic variation. In other words, morphonemes (realisations of a one morpheme which differ in at least one phoneme, but are clearly related) appear in different form, which is conditioned by different phonetic enviroments.

E.g. plural of English nouns is sometimes -es, sometimes -s,sometimes -z, sometimes even zero morpheme.


84) Explain Trubetzkoy's notion of morphoneme.

     Morphoneme is an abstract unit underlying the two forms, whose concrete realization depends on a particular condition (distribution).


85) DiSciullo's and Williams' four different notions of the word.


- Word is a morphological object, constructed of "atoms" - morphemes by affixation

 or compounding.


- Word is a syntactic atom, functioning as the basic indivisible unit of syntax.


- Word is a listed object, or "listeme" - it is a linguistic expression memorized and

 stored by  the language - users.


- Word is phonological object, constituted by phonemes.


86) Explain the difference between lexical unit and lexeme.

     A lexical unit is a union of lexical form of the word and one single sense.

     Lexeme is a family of lexical units, i.e. may include several meanings.

87) Explain the difference between synonymy and homonymy.

     In case of synonymy, the forms of the words (signifiants) are different, but their meanings (siginifies) are almost the same - they only differ in their connotations (associated meanings).

     In case of homonymy, the forms of the words (signifiants) are identical, but their meanings (signifies) are completely different.


88) Explain the difference between homonymy and polysemy.

     In case of polysemy, the forms of the words (signifiants) are identical, and the meanings (signifies) are partly identical and definitely related in some sense.

     In case of homonymy, the forms of the words (signifiants) are identical, but their meanings (signifies) are completely different.









89) Explain the three types of homonyms and give exmaples.

     These three types are the following:


- Homophones - these pairs of lexemes are identical in their sound form.

 E.g. cell <-> sell.


- Homographs - these pairs of lexemes are identical in their spelling.

 E.g. lead (metal, Pb) <-> lead (to be a leader).


- Full homonyms - there is a complete unity of both the sound form and the

 spelling of the lexemes.

 E.g. lie (to be placed in a horizontal position) <-> lie (not to tell the truth).


90) What is the difference between converseness and conversion?

     Converseness is the relationship between two words of opposite meaning, in which one of these words positively implies the another. These pairs are not gradable, nor is there any third solution. E.g. "I've bought Essentials from a guy in Glossa" implies that "A guy in Glossa sold me the Essentials."

      Conversion is a process, in which new words of different word - classes are created, while having the same phonological shape.

E.g. I've got serious work to do on these questions. (noun) <-> I've got to work on this questions. (verb) <-> I should have put on my work clothes before beginning with linguistics. (adjective).


91) What is complementarity?

     Complementarity is the relationship between two words of opposite meaning, in which one of these words implies the negation of another. These pairs are not gradable, nor there is any third solution. They can be easily described as the words in "either/or" relationship.

E.g. Either you pass this exams, or you pass next year :). Either staying alive after reading this, or commiting suicide. Either male or female. Etc. . .


92) Explain the difference between homonymy and conversion.

           Converted words preserve their core meaning (=the meaning of all the converted words is basically the same), they only change their word-class.

     Homonymous words do not share any common meaning whatsoever.












93) Explain hyperonym, hyponym and co - hyponym.

     This phenomena deal with the paradigmatic relations of linguistic signs, which form some sort of hierarchical relationships.


- Hyperonym is a linguistic sign, which has broad and general meaning, that

 covers all possible meanings of the signs which are subordinated to him.  


- Hyponym is a linguistic sign, which has narrow and specialised meaning, that

 implies the general meaning of it's superordinate sign (hyperonym).


- Co - Hyponyms are hyponyms found on the same level of this hierarchy (the

 degree of their specialisation in their meaning is the same).


94) Explain archilexeme, give an example.

     Archilexeme is a hyperonym.

     E.g. archilexeme flower covers all these hyponyms: rose, violet, dandelion, tulip, daffodil, etc.

     Also see question 93.


95) What is lexical field?

     Lexical field is a subset of the lexicon (vocabulary), which shows its syntagmatic and paradigmatic structure and relations. We can distinguish between two types of lexical fields:


- Linear fields - all of their members are on the same hierarchical level.

 E.g. porshe, trabant, ferrari, ford, volkswagen -> cars.


- Hierarchical fields - members of this field form hierarchical relations of super - and sub- ordinacy.



                         Birds             Feline           

                       /                    /            \    

E.g. Animals ---- Mammals                   Tigers

                       \                    \

                         Lizards         Canine --- Dogs


                                                                Wolves etc.


96) Explain the difference between bound and free forms.

     Free forms may occur on their own, with no need for any support from the neighbouring words or morphemes, and have a standalone meaning.

E.g. tree, car, drive.

     Bound forms cannot occur on their own, but only with the grammatical and semantic support of the neighbouring words, and may even merge with them. They have their own general meaning which has to be specialised by the words they merge with.  E.g. -er (agent), -s (plural)

97) What is the difference between metaphor and metonymy?

     Metaphor is a change in meaning based on the relation of external similarity.

     Metonymy is a change in meaning based on the relation of internal, inherent relationships.  


98) Explain anthropomorphic and synaesthetic metaphor.

- Anthropomorphic metaphor is based on the similarity between parts of human

 body and inanimate objects.

 E.g. the lungs of a town, the eye of the storm, etc.


- Synaesthetic metaphor is based on a transposition from one human sense to


 E.g. a cold voice, a sweet smell, etc.


99) What is synecdoche?

     Synecdoche is a special type of metonymy based on the part for the whole (pars pro toto) or the whole for the part (totum pro parte) relationships.

E.g. I love chicken for lunch. - totum pro parte, you don't eat the whole chicken.

      Princess, I've come to ask your father for your hand! - pars pro toto, he surely

      doesn't want just her hand, but probably the whole princess se všým všudy.


100) Explain componential analysis, give an example.

       It is a method, which may describe a possibly infinite amount of words by assigning them combinations of universal semantic features.

E.g. woman can be described as a combination of these semantic features: human, adult, female.


101) What is moneme and what is zero morpheme?

       Moneme is a minimal, further unanalysable linguistic sign (means the same as morpheme).

       Zero morpheme is a type of a derivational morpheme, which has a proper meaning, but has actually no visible form.


102) Explain the notions determinant vs. determinatum.

       These are the two units which form the syntagmatic relation, determinant being the determining element (modifier) and determinatum being the determined element (head).


103) Explain semasiological method in word formation.

       The semasiological method proceeds from the form of the naming units to their meaning. It analyses the units which form the word, specifies the components of this word and looks into its morphological structure. The result of this method is the particular word - formation pattern along with certain semantic information.




104) Explain recursion.

       Recursion means the allowance of practically unlimited repetition of adding words to the other words in formation of a compound word. Because of this, compounds may be theorethically infinitely long and we may produce a limitless amount of them.


105) What is the difference between endocetric and exocentric compounds, give  


       In case of endocentric compounds, the determinant is a hyponym of the determinatum, and they formaly both belong to the same word - class.

E.g. blackboard, with blackboard being a type of a board, and both board and blackboard are nouns.  

        In case of exocentric compounds, the determinant is not a hyponym of the determinatum, but the compound as a whole is a hyponym to some unexpressed determinatum.

E.g. redskin, with red not being a type of a skin, but with redskin being a special kind of people.


106) Explain neoclassical compounds.

       Neoclassical compounds are relatively new compound words consisting of parts extracted from classical languages, such as Greek or Latin, which may be connected by a linking element.


107) Explain the difference between Germanic and French type of compounds.

       In Germanic type of a compound, the determinant preceedes the determinatum. E.g. bedroom, blackboard, etc.

        In French type of a compound, the determinatum is followed by the determinant. E.g. pickpocket, spendthrift.


108) Explain the difference between Class I and Class II affixes.

       Class I affixes attach to a morpheme boundary - they attach to the root. They cause stress shift (they may even attract the stress, if they are prefixes).

       Class II affixes attach to a word boundary - they attach to the stem. They are stress neutral.

        If we have a word, where both of these types of affixes occur, Class I affix always occurs inside the affix of Class II (Class I is always closer to the root of the word).

E.g. productiveness = product (root) + ive (Class I affix, attached to the root) + ness (Class II affix, attached to the stem)









109) What is secretion? Give an example.

       Process of secretion is one of the possible origins of suffixes. In this case, the suffix originated as such, i.e. it has never been an independent native word before it became a suffix, but only a reinterpretation of foreign loan words, which is now used in combination with native words.

E.g. landscape - this word came to English from Dutch, and the foreign suffix -scape, which has had actually no meaning in English before, is now used in various combinations with native words, e.g. roadscape, parkscape, etc.


110) Explain conversion and zero morpheme derivation.

       For conversion, see question 90.

       Zero morpheme derivation is a special derivational process, in which the newly derived word (usually of a different word - class than the original one) has the same spelling and phonological structure as the original word. The zero morpheme, which was used to derive it, has no visible form, but it has a proper meaning equal to meanings of other, "standard" derivational morphemes.

E.g. we may derive the verb clean from an adjective clean. This is the same as if we derived the word legalize from the adjective legal - the zero morpheme in clean (verb) has the same meaning as the "proper" morpheme -ize in legalize (verb).


111) Explain and exemplify back - formation, clipping and acronymization.


- Back - formation is a process of deletion of the final segment resembling a suffix

 (or a supposed suffix) from a complex word by analogy with other examples,

 where suffixed and non - suffixed forms are independent lexemes.  

 E.g. the word swindle was derived from swindler by the deletion of the final -er.


- Clipping is a formation of new word by its reduction to one of its parts.

 E.g. the word ad is formed by reducing the word advertisement.


- Acronymization is a process of forming a new word from a phrase by picking its

 initial letters or syllables.

 E.g. radar is formed from Radio Detecting and Ranging, CD means a Compact Disc,...


112) Explain Mathesius' conception of the potentiality and oscillation of the language


       This was a synchronic approach (a "static" approach, according to Mathesius) to the current phenomena of language. According to Mathesius, a language has never been unchanging - there's a potentiality, a synchronic oscillation of the particular language's speech. These oscillation tendencies allow the language to develop, and they can be statistically represented.







113) Trnka as one of the major representatives of the Prague School of Linguistics

       distinguishes four morphological exponents. Give their list and exemplify each

       of them.

       He distinguished four following exponents:


- Phonological exponent - e.g. drink - drank - drunk


- Synthetic exponent - e.g. re - write, night - s


- Analytic exponent - e.g I have written.


- Composite exponent - any group of words.



114) Explain phonological and synthetic exponents distinguished by Trnka.

       Ehm. . . See question 113 and page 106 in Essentials, ak to pochopíte, dajte mi vedieť :).


115) Explain the principles of IC - analysis.

       The immediate constituent analysis is based on the division of sentence into two parts, each of which can be further subdivided into another two parts, which again can be further segmented, until the ultimate constituents, i.e. consituents, which are further indivisible, are found. IC analysis thus creates hierarchy of several layers, and constituents occuring on the same level of this hierarchy are called immediate constituents. Via this hierarchy, it determines the rank of constituents, and therefore shows basic syntactic patterns.


116) Explain the basic principle of the Functional Sentence Perspective

       According to FSP, any sentence may be divided into two basic parts.

       The first one, called theme, represents the basis of the sentence - the part, about which something is stated, serves as a link with previous parts of the text, and doesn't bring new information.

       The second one, called rheme, represents the nucleus of the sentence - the part, which states something about the basis, and which brings some new information.


117) Explain the terms theme - rheme transition, thematizer - rhematizer.

       The theme - rheme transition is the exact point in the sentence, where one part ends and the other one begins.

       Thematizer is a sentence element, which signalises theme - something which is already known.  

       Rhematizer is a sentence element, which signalises rheme - something new, novelty.







118) Explain the meaning of the absolute and the included positions in Bloomfield’s

       definition of sentence.

       Bloomfield defines sentence as an independent form, which is not included by grammatical construction in any larger linguistic form. In other words, sentence itself is the largest unit of grammatical description.

       Whenever any linguistic form is a part or a constituent of any larger form, it is found in included position.

E.g. Sam McHale likes to talk about Indians. - Sam is just a part of the larger unit (the sentence), so he's in included position.

        If the linguistic form is the largerst unit alone by itself, it is found in absolute position.

E.g. Sam!!! - Sam constitutes the entire sentence all by himself (bravo), so he's in absolute position.


119) Give five basic sentence types according to Darbyshire.

       These types are as follows:


- Subject + Intransitive Verb - Gregová screams.


- Subject + Intransitive Verb + Complement - Gregová screams at BAS4.


- Subject + Transitive Verb + Object - Gregová throws chalks.


- Subject + Transitive Verb + Object + Complement - Gregová throws chalks at BAS4.


- Subject + Transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Object - Gregová gave us a hard time.


120) The basic ideas of the Theses of the Prague School.


- Language is a system of expressive means serving for communication.


- Language is a concrete phenomenon depending to a high to degree on external

 factors from extra - linguistic reality.


- The spoken and the written forms of language differ by their unique features,

 which must be studied by linguists.


- Linguistic research of an isolated phenomenon should be based on synchronic

 approach. Diachrony should only be used for the examination of the language as a

 system in development.


- The comparative method is to be used for the creation of the language typology,

 which would describe the various language structures.





- The phonological research is to be focused on phonological opposition in

 languages, and morphological phenomena are to be treated in relation to the

 phonological ones and not in isolation. This led to the establishment of a new

 branch of linguistics called morphonemics, which studies the role of the phoneme

 in the morphological system.


121) Explain field method.

       It's a technique for the recording and analysis of the language which the linguist himself could not speak nor write.


122) Basic features of American descriptivism; what are the differences from

       European structuralist schools?

       By using field methods, American descriptivists came to a conclusion, that the range of variations of human language is far greater than previously supposed, and that the traditional general grammatical descriptions based on European languages are simply inappropriate for all languages.

       Apart from standard linguistic approaches, they also employed ethnography and antropology in their research.

       Because the object of their research were the mainly languages of Indian tribes which were illiterate, synchronic method was employed. The diachronic method was neglected, since there were no written historical sources to rely on.

        They concentrated on  and overemphasized the form, disregarding the meaning (especially lexical meaning).


123) Explain Bloomfield’ behaviorism and its mechanistic nature.

       His opinions were influenced by the psychological approach of behaviorism, which meant that he disregarded any speculative data which could not be directly observable or physically measurable. His approach is mechanistic, i.e. cause - and - effect approach, where the language enables the person to provide the reaction whenever other person sends the stimulus.


124) Explain why semantics was not studied by American linguists.

       Because American linguists didn't give a shit of attention to lexical meaning, they just studied the form.


125) What Bloomfield meant by secondary phonemes? Why are they assigned the

       status of phoneme?

       Secondary phonemes are phonemes consisting only of combinations of phonic features, such as e.g. combination of stress, pitch, intonation etc. They are granted the status of the phoneme because they are able to distinguish the meaning.

E.g. noun contest has the stress on the first syllable (the stress phoneme is there), which distinguishes it from the verb contest, in which the stress phoneme is found in the second syllable.





126) Explain Bloomfield’s terms modulation and phonetic modification.


- Modulation is the use of secondary phonemes to mark stress, pitch, intonation, etc.


- Phonetic Modification is a change in the primary phonemes.

 E.g. when contractive forms are made, for example do + not -> don't, the second

 phoneme in [du] is changed into [ou] in [dount]


127) Explain the terms immediate constituents, ultimate constituents, and the binary

       nature of IC analysis.

       See question 115.


128) Explain  the difference between endocentric vs. exocentric constructions.

       See question 105.


129) Explain phrase marker.

       Phrase marker is the labelled bracketing generated by the phrase structure, valid for a terminal string.


130) Explain labelled bracketing.

       This means that every constituent is assigned its syntactic category (label), which is then abbreviated and put in brackets.


131) Explain the difference between kernel string and kernel sentence.

       Kernel string is the sequence of symbols, which cannot be further analysed, and which forms the basis for transformation.  

       Kernel sentence is the grammaticalised kernel string, i.e. its symbols are properly inflected, they are put in the correct word order, etc.  


132) Explain rewrite rules and give at least three restrictions upon them.

       Rewrite rules are rules, which are applied in rewriting the phrase structure. There can be only one symbol on the left (e.g. NP = D + N), we cannot chaotically change the categories on the right (e.g. S(entence) always equals NP + VP) and there's a symbol of tense obligatory for each sentence (unlike the symbol of modality).

133) Explain understood and discontinuous constituents.

       Understood constituents are those constituents, which are naturally expected and perceived by all language users, so they have the right to be ommited.

E.g. Stekauer teaches linguistic and Samko (teaches) American studies.

      Discontinuous constituents are those constiuents, which are separated from each other, yet they form a single, unified meaning.

E.g. Redford licked the milk up.


134) What is the role of transformations in the original version of TG?

       Neviem :(. See page 124 in Essentials, a ak z toho niekto vyjde, tak nech mi zapraje stastne a vesele Vianoce.



135) Basic parts of transformational rule + example of passive transformation.

       See question 134.


136) Explain the difference between deep and surface structure.

       Deep structure is a phrase marker which contains all the lexical components (words) which are necessary to determine the semantic content of the sentence (its meaning).

        Surface structure is a result of transformations applied to the deep structure, but without the application of the morphonological rules, which would turn the deep structure into a sequence of phonemes and morphemes.


137) Explain seme, sememe, semanteme and phraseme.

       Seme is the smallest unit of meaning. It is a single characteristic of a sememe, which allows us to distinguish one sememe from another.

       Sememe is unit of lexical meaning, a complex of semes. It also is the meaning of the morpheme (the form of the morpheme is called formeme).

       Semanteme is an irreducable indivisible unit or meaning, expressing an idea or an image. As far as I understand it, it is the meaning of a word - either composed of many sememes in case of a complex word, or it can be identical with sememe if the word consists of one morpheme only.

       Phraseme is a single semantic unit consisting of two or more lexemes (words).

E.g. Dig your own grave. - this doesn't mean to go to cemetery with a shovel and dig, but to do something really, really stupid.


138) Give at least three types of connotations.


- Positive (favourable) connotation


- Negative (unfavourable) connotation


- Neutral connotation


139) Explain the difference between contradictory and contrary antonyms.

       Contrary antonyms are gradable, and there are more that just two either/or options.

       Contradictory antonyms are not gradable.


140) What is folk etymology? Give an example.

       Folk, or popular etymology is a process of inserting the etymological component from a native language into a newly borrowed foreign word in order to better understand its meaning. However, this native language etymology usually has nothing to do with the etymology of this word in its original language - they could be completely different.

E.g. word picois came in English from French. In English, it quickly assumed the form pickaxe, but the etymology of pickaxe (verb pick + noun axe) is completely different from the etymology of picois.


141) - 143) are mysterious questions, which were kidnapped by a special race of aliens (Linguistostealers) and are therefore missing. No one knows where to find them . . . :)


144) Explain why American descriptivists concentrated on ethnography and

       anthropology. Explain the meaning of these branches of science.

       This was mainly because of their synchronic approach - they could not rely on any standardised linguistic sources, such as written records, because the Indian tribes whose languages the studied were illiterate. That's why they had to concentrate on the culture, which was influencing these languages, and therefore employ ethnography - the study of human social phenomena and anthropology - study of human race and culture.


145) Give six grammatical processes as distinguished by E. Sapir.

       These were the word order, composition, affixation, internal modification, reduplication and variations in accent.


146) Explain the term reduplication as one of grammatical processes

   distinguished by Sapir.

       Reduplication is a repetition of all or a part of the root element.  


147) Explain the terms internal and external factors, and exemplify them with

       negation in English.

       Internal factors are factors influencing language originated from the language itself and its structure.

       External factors are factors influencing language determined by any sphere of the extra - linguistic reality (military, social, economic, political, etc.)

        The single negation found in English was conditioned by the following external factors:


- The period of rationalism, when logical organisation of society and everyday

 life was emphasized, it made no sense to use multiple negation;


- The inluence of Latin, which was the dominant language admitting only

 single negation;


And it was also conditioned by the following internal factors:


- The existence of pronoun "any", which had universal validity and was

 potentionally applicable to every single item - these semantic features have

 contributed to the transition to a single negation;


- The nature of English verbs, which are by themselves all semantically

 neutral, their positive or negative meaning results only from the context (as

 opposed to some synthetic languages, which use inflectional morphemes for

 this purpose.)

 E.g. Nobody liked Stekauer - the negative meaning of the verb

 like doesn't originate from the verb like itself, but from the pronoun nobody.

148) Explain the terms internal and external factors, and exemplify them with the

       development of the pronunciation of  -ing.

       For the explanation of external and internal factors, see question 147.

       The pronunciation of the suffix -ing was slowly changing from [i velar n g] to [i velar n] up to [in]. The orthoepists (external factor) decided to restore the old pronunciation - the velar [n], and were successful because of an internal factor supporting them - velar [n] perfectly fits into the system of English plosive consonants - there were three voiceless plosives ([p], [t], [k]), three voiced plosives ([b], [d], [g]), but only two nasal plosives ([m], [n] and then velar [n] was added to create harmony).



149) Explain what is meant by the integration of peripheral elements into the system

       of language and give at least two examples.

       Integration of peripheral elements into the system of language happens when these peripheral elements are revaluated into the elements, which are typical of the corpus.


- Possessive form of nouns was at the periphery, because it was the only singular noun form with an inflectional morpheme (['s]) :(. Then it was revaluated - it became an adjective, which is perfectly alright with the users and is typical of the language corpus. The possessive form is now happy :).


- The length of consonants was at the periphery, because unlike the length of vowels, it was unable to distinguish the meaning of words :(. However, clever language users started to use it not to distinguish the meaning, but to express emphasis and emotion, which was perfectly alright. Thus the length of consonants isn't an outsider anymore and is happy :).


150) Explain the difference between root and stem.

       The root is the irreducable core of the word carrying lexical meaning, having no derivational nor inflectional morphemes.

       The stem is the part of the word without any inflectional morphemes. It may include derivational ones, however.


Veselé Vianoce . . .A veselý Január . . . A Február...  A rovno celý rok :) . . .